How to Read a Literary Visualisation: Network Effects in the Lake School of Romantic Poetry

Laura Mandell

Abstract


Robert Southey, a member of “the Lake School” of poetry—really, the first “avant garde” in the history of English literature—was as prolific a letter writer as he was of poetry and prose during the Romantic era in England, roughly 1780-1830: “to write to a dear friend,” Southey says, “is to me like escaping from prison.” A massive digital scholarly edition is underway, The Collected Letters of Robert Southey. It is divided into eight Parts: I:1791-1797, II:1798-1803, III:1804-09, IV:1810-15, V:1816-21, VI:1822-27, VII:1828-33, VIII:1833-39. Currently Parts I and II have been completely edited and made available to the public. These letters capture a set of intellectual, amicable, and financial relationships established while Southey lived in and traveled away from his home base of Bristol in “the West Country,” before he actually moved to the Lake District. Because each person and place name in the letters was encoded using TEI P5, we have been able to create a data set that indicates who is mentioned in letters to whom. That data set was fed into a Directed and Undirected Graph to be visualized, which is available to see and manipulate online here (http://dhhub.org/demos/voyeur/).

Robert Southey, un membre ""the Lake School""—considérés comme la première "avant-garde" de l'histoire de la littérature anglaise—était un écrivain aussi prolifique en lettres qu'en poésie et en prose durant la période romantique en Angleterre, soit entre 1780 et 1830 : "écrire à un ami cher", disait Southey, "est pour moi comme s'échapper de prison." Une édition érudite numérique massive, The Collected Letters of Robert Southey, est en cours d'élaboration. Elle est divisée en huit parties : I :1791-1797, II :1798-1803, III :1804-09, IV :1810-15, V :1816-21, VI :1822-27, VII :1828-33, VIII :1833-39. Actuellement les parties I et II ont été entièrement révisées et rendues publiques. Ces lettres reproduisent un ensemble de relations intellectuelles, amicales et financières que Southey a établies alors qu'il habitait à Bristol dans "le West Country," et au cours de ses voyages, avant qu'il s'installe dans le Lake District. Étant donné que chaque personne et nom de lieu dans les lettres est encodé en utilisant TEI P5, nous avons été en mesure de créer un ensemble de données indiquant qui est mentionné dans les lettres adressées à quelles personnes. Cet ensemble de données a été alimenté dans un graphe orienté et non orienté pour être visualisé, que l'on peut voir et manipuler en ligne (http://dhhub.org/demos/voyeur/).

References


Batten, Guinn. 1998. The Orphaned Imagination: Melancholy and Commodity Culture in English Romanticism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Print.

Bertin, Jacques. 1983. Semiology of Graphics: Diagrams, Networks, Maps. Trans. William J. Berg. Redlands, CA: Esri Press, 2011. Print.

Briggs, Asa. 1974. Introduction. Essays in the History of Publishing in celebration of the 250th anniversary of the House of Longman 1724-1974. Ed. Asa Briggs. New York: Longman. 3-27. Print.

Chen, Chaomei. 2006. Information Visualization: Beyond the Horizon. 2nd ed. London: Springer-Verlag. Print.

Cheshire, Paul. 1992. "William Gilbert and his Bristol Circle, 1788-98." The Politics of Nature: Wordsworth and Some Contemporaries. Ed. Nicholas Roe. New York: St. Martin’s Press. 79-98. Print.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. 1956. The Collected Letters of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Ed. Earl Leslie Griggs. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Print.

Cottle, Joseph. 1848. Reminiscences of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey. 2 ed. London: Houlston and Stoneman. Print and Web.

Cronin, Richard. 1992. "Joseph Cottle and West Country Romanticism." The Politics of Nature: Wordsworth and Some Contemporaries. Ed. Nicholas Roe. New York: St. Martin’s Press. 65-78. Print.

Curran, Stuart. 1986. Poetic Form and British Romanticism. New York: Oxford UP. Print.

Eagleton, Terry. 1997. "Contradictions of Postmodernism." New Literary History 28.1: 1-6. Print and Web.

Easley, David, and Jon Kleinberg. 2010. Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning about a Highly Connected World. New York: Cambridge UP. Print.

Feather, John. 2006. The History of British Publishing. New York: Oxford UP. Ebook. Web.

Holmes, Richard. 1998. Coleridge: Darker Reflections, 1804-1834. New York: Pantheon Books.

---. 1990. Coleridge: Early Visions, 1772-1834. New York: Viking.

Keim, Daniel, Gennady Andrienko, Jean-Daniel Fekete, Carsten Gög, Jörn Kohlhammer, and Guy Melançon. 1998. "Visual Analytics: Definition, Process, and Challenges." Information Visualization: Human-Centered Issues and Perspectives. Eds. Andreas Kerren, John T. Stasko, Jean-Daniel Fekete, and Chris North. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag. 154-176. Print.

Kerren, Andreas, John T. Stasko, Jean-Daniel Fekete, and Chris North, eds. 1998. Information Visualization: Human-Centered Issues and Perspectives. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag. Print.

Leader, Zachary. 1991. Writer’s Block. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. Print.

Moretti, Franco. 2005. Graphs, Maps, and Trees: Abstract Models for a Literary History. Brooklyn, NY: Verso Books. Print.

---. 2009a. "‘Relatively Blunt.’" Critical Inquiry 36: 172-74. Print and Web.

---. 2009b, "Style, Inc. Reflections on Seven Thousand Titles (British Novels, 1740-1850)." Critical Inquiry 36: 134-58. Print and Web.

Newman, M. E. J. 2010. Networks: An Introduction. New York: Oxford UP. Kindle Ebook. Web.

Pratt, Lynda. 1994. "Coleridge, Wordsworth, and Joan of Arc." Notes and Queries 41.3: 335-36. Print and Web.

---. 2006a. "Family Misfortunes? The Posthumous Editing of Robert Southey." In Pratt, ed., Robert Southey and the Contexts of English Romanticism. 219-38. Print.

---. 2000a. "Interaction, Reorientation, and Discontent in the Coleridge-Southey Circle, 1797: Two New Letters by Robert Southey." Notes and Queries 47.3: 314-21. Print and Web.

---, David Denison. 2000b. "The Language of the Southey-Coleridge Circle." Language Sciences 22: 401-422.2

---, ed. 2006b. Robert Southey and the Contexts of English Romanticism. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Press. Print.

Reiman, Donald H. 1972. The Romantics Reviewed: Contemporary Reviews of British Romantic Writers. New York: Garland Pub. Print.

Roe, Nicholas. 1992. The Politics of Nature: Wordsworth and Some Contemporaries. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Print.

---, ed. 2010. English Romantic Writers and The West Country. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Print.

Sisman, Adam. 2006. The Friendship: Wordsworth and Coleridge. London: HarperCollins. Print.

Southey, Robert. 2009. The Collected Letters of Robert Southey: A Romantic Circles Edition, Part I. Ed. Lynda Pratt. Web. http://www.rc.umd.edu/editions/southey_letters/Part_One/HTML/letterEEd.26.141.html.

---. 2011. The Collected Letters of Robert Southey: A Romantic Circles Edition, Part II. Ed. Lynda Pratt. Web. http://www.rc.umd.edu/editions/southey_letters/Part_Two/index.html

---. 2004. "Joan of Arc" . Ed. Lynda Pratt. Vol. I. Robert Southey: Poetical Works 1793-1810. 5 vols. Gen. Ed. Lynda Pratt. London: Pickering and Chatto. Print.

---. 1969. The Life and Correspondence of Robert Southey. 6 vols. Ed. Charles Cuthbert Southey. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1849. Rpt. St. Clair Shores, MI: Scholarly Press. Print.

Trumpener, Katie. 2009. "Paratext and Genre System: A Response to Franco Moretti." Critical Inquiry 36: 159-71. Print and Web.

Ware, Colin. 2004. Information Visualization: Perception for Design. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann. Print.

Weisstein, Eric W. 2013. "Polygon Vertex." MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource. 17 June. Web. Accessed 24 June 2013. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PolygonVertex.html

Wordsworth, William. 1798. "Tintern Abbey." Representative Poetry Online. Ed. Ian Lancashire. Web. 15 May 2012. http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poems/lines-composed-few-miles-above-tintern-abbey-revisiting-banks-wye-during-tour-july-13-1798.

---, and Dorothy Wordsworth. 1967. The Letters of William and Dorothy Wordsworth: The Early Years 1787-1805. 2nd ed. Ed. Ernest de Selincourt and Chester L. Shaver. Oxford: the Clarendon Press, 1967. Print.

---, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. nd. Lyrical Ballads (1798-1805): An Electronic Edition. Ed. Ron Tetrault and Bruce Graver, Vivien Hannon, and Ron Tetrault. Cambridge and Romantic Circles. Web. 15 October 2012. http://www.rc.umd.edu/editions/LB/.


Full Text: HTML

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.